- A report of child abuse is made every ten seconds
- More than five children die every day as a result of child abuse or neglect.
- Approximately 80% of children that die from abuse are under the age of 4.
- 1 in every 3 girls will be sexually molested before the age of 18
- 1 in every 6 boys will be sexually molested before the age of 18
- Every 10 SECONDS a child is abused, raped or killed in the U.S.
- In 13 seconds, another child will be abused in the U.S
- There were 2.9 million child abuse reports made in 1992
- ONLY 28% of the children identified as harmed by abuse are investigated
- 85% of the 1.2 – 1.5 million runaways are fleeing abuse at home
- Today 6 children will commit suicide
- Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death (ages 15-24)
- Untreated child abuse increases the likelihood of arrest for a violent crime by 38 percent
- Today 3,086 public school students will be corporally punished & 3,356 high-school students will drop out
- 60 MILLION survivors are former victims of Child Sexual Abuse in America today
- 38% of all women & 20% of all men have been sexually abused by the end of adolescence
- It is estimated that 3% – 6% of the clergy population has abused a child in their congregation
- The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children–most of whom do not report the offense
- It is estimated that between 50-60% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates.
- More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator in some way.
- Child abuse occurs at every socioeconomic level, across ethnic and cultural lines, within all religions and at all levels of education.
- About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.
- About 80% of 21 year olds that were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder.
- The estimated annual cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States for 2007 is $104 billion.
CHILD ABUSE LINKED TO SUBSTANCE ABUSE
- One-third to two-thirds of child maltreatment cases involve substance use to some degree.
- Children whose parents abuse alcohol and other drugs are three times more likely to be abused and more than four times more likely to be neglected than children from non-abusing families.
- As many as two-thirds of the people in treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children.
CHILD ABUSE LINKED TO CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
- 14% of all men in prison in the USA were abused as children.
- 36% of all women in prison were abused as children.
- Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile, 28% more likely to be arrested as an adult, and 30% more likely to commit violent crime.
|Types of Abuse|
|The various types of maltreatment are neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological maltreatment, medical neglect and an “other”2 category. The category of “other” exists because there may be instances of abuse that my not fit in the conventional definitions of the main categories. The following figure lists the various types of abuse and their respective percentage of the total abuse cases.|
|NOTE: These percentages total more than 100% because if a child fell into more than one category each maltreatment type was counted accordingly.|
|Factors associated with recurrence include: having a disability, being a prior victim, being in foster care, being exclusively American Indian/Alaska Native, exclusively white or of multiple races, and being younger than 3 years of age.|
|NOTE: The following rates are per 1,000 children of the same age group, ethnicity or gender respective to the category being addressed.The rate of victimization per 1,000 children in 2009 was 9.3, a decrease from the rate of 10.5 children per 1,000 victimized in 2001.3 In 2009, out of over 3.3 million reports of child abuse and neglect, only 702,000 children were substantiated as victims of at leastone account of child maltreatment.An estimated 1,770 children died as a result of being neglected or abused during 2009, an increase from the 2008 estimates.The gender of maltreatment victims was almost split evenly in 2009 (about 48% male, 52% female).4Almost 33% of child abuse victims were under the age of 4. As the childs age increases, the rate of abuse decreases.Caucasian children are the highest percentage of maltreatment victims, however this is partly due to the fact that the highest child population in the U.S. by ethnicity is Caucasian. Therefore, the victims are also broken down by rates per 1,000 children in each ethnicity group for child maltreatment victims:
Factors that placed children at a greater potential of being substantiated as victims included:5
|Reporting of Abuse|
|Sixty-one thousand referrals of child maltreatment are reported to CPS/ACS each week. This translates into about 6 cases reported every minute. In 2007, 3.2 million referrals were made to CPS. Since one report of child abuse may involve more than one child, a total of 5.8 million children were involved in a child abuse report in 2007.During 2007, the rate of referrals was 43.7 per 1,000 children. Sixty-two percent of these referrals were investigated; 25% of these investigations determined that at least one child was a victim of maltreatment.In 2007, the most common source of reports (58%) among professionals was those given by educational personnel (educators made 17% of all reports from professionals). Parents reported about 6% of cases.|
|Potential Effects of Maltreatment|
|The effects of maltreatment differ across situations and by individuals. Each person responds differently to maltreatment and each person is different in how they cope with stressful events.Long-term consequences of maltreatment depend on the type of maltreatment, but may include:
|About 10% of maltreated children are sexually abused. If a child was sexually abused they were 43% more likely to be victims of other types of child maltreatment if they had been sexually abused in the past.7One study found that about 90% of child molesters abuse children that they know.8Not all molesters of children are identified as pedophiles, but those who are commit 95% of all sexual misdeeds on children.7 Pedophilia is a disorder where are adults whose primary sexual interest is in children that are pre-pubertal. A hebephile is an adult that is primarily aroused by adolescents who have gone through puberty.9Men molest girls more often than boys, but those who molest boys have a higher quantity of victims. Most sexual acts with children involving women are underreported.8Child molesters are equivalent to the typical residents of the U.S. not only in education, but also in the percentage of those who are married or formerly married as well as religious observance. Furthermore, molesters of children are quite equal in every ethnic group and do not appear to be specific to any ethnicity.8|
|Physical abuse is what most people think about when they hear the words “child abuse.” It is an act that results in physical injury to a child such as punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, breaking bones, hair pulling, and shaking a baby.Approximately 11 percent of all child abuse cases are the result of physical abuse.10Certain areas that may be bruised that do not occur during normal play and that may be causes for concern are such areas as:11
Risk Factors of an Abusive Caretaker:
|Of all the types of child maltreatment, child neglect is the most prevalent. However, neglect is greatly underreported and often goes unnoticed among professionals or others who care for the child.
Of the 794,000 maltreatment victims in 2007, 59% were neglected compared to 11% who were physically abused, quite a significant difference.10Physical neglect is the most common type of neglect. This includes abandonment, medical neglect, inadequate nutrition, clothing or hygiene, and being left unattended in a car.Neglect is broken down to a stratification of severity: mild, moderate, or severe.Neglect can also be labeled into categories. These are: physical, medical, environmental, inadequate supervision, emotional, educational, and newborns addicted or exposed to drugs.
|References1 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration on Children Youth & Families. Child Maltreatment 2007 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009). Retrieved April 3 2009 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm07/index.htm2The “other” category may include: abandonment, threats of harm to the child, congenital drug addiction, or any other type of condition depending on the state definitions that may not apply to the main categories.3 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration on Children Youth & Families. Child Maltreatment 2001 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003). Retrieved August 15, 2007 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm01/index.htm4 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration on Children Youth & Families. Child Maltreatment 2004 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006). Retrieved March 15, 2007 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm04/cm04.pdf5 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration on Children Youth & Families. Child Maltreatment 2004 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006). Retrieved March 15, 2007 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm04/cm04.pdf6Widom, C.S., DuMont, K., & Czaja, S.J. (2007). A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 64, 49-56.7Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., Turner, H., & Hamby, S.L., (Feb, 2005). The victimization of children and youth: A comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreatment, 10 (1), 5-25.8 Abel, G.G., & Harlow, N. (2002). Child molestation prevention study excerpted from The stop child molestation book. Xlibris, 2001. http://www.childmolestationprevention.org/pdfs/study.pdf9 http://www.childmolestationprevention.org/pages/focus_on_the_cause.html
10 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration on Children Youth & Families. Child Maltreatment 2005 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007). Retrieved May 19, 2007 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/index.htm#can
13 DePanfilis, D. (2006). Child neglect: A guide for prevention, assessment and intervention. Dept. HHS, et al. http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/neglect/index.cfm
14. Arizona Child Abuse Info. Center (2009): Child Abuse Statistics: http://childhelpinfocenter.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=38&Itemid=50
15. ChildHelp National Organization: Statistics: http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics